to this site in order to view sexually explicit material. Interestingly, Nietzsche himself, a radical skeptic preoccupied with language, knowledge, and truth, anticipated many of the themes of postmodernity. In one form, "nihilist" is used to characterize the postmodern person, a dehumanized conformist, alienated, indifferent, and baffled, directing psychological energy into hedonistic narcissism or into a deep ressentiment that often explodes in violence. If we accept that all perspectives are equally non-binding, then intellectual or moral arrogance will determine which perspective has precedence. In his study of meaninglessness, Donald Crosby writes that the source of modern nihilism paradoxically stems from a commitment to honest intellectual openness. This perspective is derived from the existentialists' reflections on nihilism stripped of any hopeful expectations, leaving only the experience of sickness, decay, and disintegration. French philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard characterizes postmodernism as an "incredulity toward metanarratives those all-embracing foundations that we have relied on to make sense of the world.
In contrast to the efforts to overcome nihilism noted above is the uniquely postmodern response associated with the current antifoundationalists. Reaction in Germany, 1842). For Stirner, achieving individual freedom is the only law; and the state, which necessarily imperils freedom, must be destroyed. Given this circumstance, existence itself-all action, suffering, and feeling-is ultimately senseless and empty. Because miseries vastly outnumber pleasures, happiness is impossible, the philosopher argues, and subsequently advocates suicide. Free Gay Porn Pics. The critic Jacques Derrida, for example, asserts that one can never be sure that what one knows corresponds with what. Existential Nihilism While nihilism is often discussed in terms of extreme skepticism and relativism, for most of the 20th century it has been associated with the belief that life is meaningless.
In Russia, nihilism became identified with a loosely organized revolutionary movement (C.1860-1917) that rejected the authority of the state, church, and family. Both studies are responses to the existentialists' gloomy findings from earlier in the century. In his early writing, anarchist leader Mikhael Bakunin (1814-1876) composed the notorious entreaty still identified with nihilism: "Let us put our trust in the eternal spirit which destroys and annihilates only because it is the unsearchable and eternally creative source of all life-the passion for. If we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind. Centuries later during the Renaissance, William Shakespeare eloquently summarized the existential nihilist's perspective when, in this famous passage near the end of Macbeth, he has Macbeth pour out his disgust for life: Out, out, brief candle! ( Will to Power ) Since Nietzsche's compelling critique, nihilistic themes-epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness-have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. The earliest philosophical positions associated with what could be characterized as a nihilistic outlook are those of the Skeptics. Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage And then is heard no more; it is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing.
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